International Journal of Science and Technology

International Journal of Science and Technology>> Volume 7, Number 9, September 2017

International Journal of Science and Technology

The In Vitro Antimalarial Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Anacardium occidentale against Plasmodium falciparum in Damboa, North-Eastern Nigeria

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Author K.K. Shaa, O. O. Ajayi, G.A. Arong
On Pages 80-85
Volume No. 4
Issue No. 4
Issue Date April 01, 2014
Publishing Date April 01, 2014
Keywords Antimalarial activity, Plasmodium falciparum, Extract concentration, Anacardium occidentale, Malaria


Malaria is one of the most important infectious and life-threatening diseases in the tropics and sub-tropics. The search for new antimalarial compounds has largely been necessitated by P. falciparum resistance to most antimalarial drugs. In this study, the in vitro antimalarial activity of the aqueous and ethanolic crude extracts of Anacardium occidentale, was evaluated against fresh isolates of P. falciparum from Damboa, North-eastern Nigeria. Acute toxicity test and anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts were also determined. Inhibition of schizont maturation was significant relative to control (P = 0.05). Ethanolic extract exhibited higher antimalarial activity of 75.64.10 %, IC50 of 11.7g/ml and aqueous extract had an activity of 72.38 %, IC50 of 16.00g/ml. Both extracts showed moderate antimalarial activity. The ethanolic extract of Anacardium occidentale at 3000mg/kg body weight showed sign of weakness. Other extracts did not show any signs of toxicity in rats and all extracts showed a good measure of anti-inflammatory activity. This result justifies the traditional use of the plant in malaria treatment. As potential source of antimalarial compounds, the plant extracts should be subjected to further research to study their active principles or constituents.

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