International Journal of Science and Technology

International Journal of Science and Technology>> Volume 7, Number 2, February 2017

International Journal of Science and Technology

Clays and their Industrial Applications: Synoptic Review

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Author(s) S. O. Obaje, J. I. Omada and U. A. Dambatta
On Pages 264-270
Volume No. 3
Issue No. 5
Issue Date May, 2013
Publishing Date May, 2013
Keywords Clay Geology, Phyllosilicates, Clays Classification, Clay Crystal Structure, Ion Exchange, Industrial Raw Materials


In this paper, the geology of clays is discussed alongside with their industrial applications. The term clay implies earthy, fine-grained material with upper limit of clay size at a particle diameter of 0.004 mm and it usually develops plasticity when mixed with limited amount of water. Clays are the most common minerals in argillaceous rocks, recent marine sediments and in many soils. Clays are made up of hydrous alumino-silicates, frequently with appreciable amount of Fe, Mg, Ca, Na and K. Clays are formed by the alteration of aluminium silicates both in weathering and low temperature hydrothermal processes. The study of clays can be used for paleoenvironmental reconstruction. Though there are two main schemes of classification of clays based on origin and structural chemistry, clays are also classified as phyllosilicates. Clays have several raw material applications in construction, ceramic, electrical, pharmaceutical, paint, paper, textile and petroleum industries, respectively, etc.

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