International Journal of Science and Technology

International Journal of Science and Technology>> Volume 7, Number 9, September 2017

International Journal of Science and Technology

Assessment of the Quality of Water from Hand-Dug Wells in Shama Ahanta West Metropolitan Assembly: Western Region of Ghana

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Author John Jackson Nsiah, Ebenezer Boakye
Volume No. 5
Issue No. 9
Issue Date September 01, 2015
Publishing Date September 01, 2015
Keywords Assessment, Hand-dug well, water quality, physico-chemical, bacteriological


This study investigated the physico-chemical and bacteriological properties including coliform bacteria from hand-dug wells in communities within Shama Ahanta West Metropolitan Assembly (SAWMA) in the Western Region, Ghana. The purpose was to assess its quality. Six hand-dug wells were sampled from communities within SAWMA to test for physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters. The results of the study indicated ranges for the various parameters as follows: pH, 6.26 7.48; turbidity, 2.85 13.9 NTU; conductivity, 896 3400 S/cm; colour, 1 -5 Hz; TDS, 493 1870 mg/L; TSS, 4 6 mg/L; alkalinity, 36 372 mg/L; total hardness, 198 762 mg/L and total iron, 0.06 0.41 mg/L. Cations and anions showed variations in samples as follows: Na+, 38 750 mg/L; K+, 2.5 11 mg/L; Ca2+, 40.1 105 mg/L; Mg2+, 22.3 121 mg/L; Mn2+, 0.01 0.37 mg/L; NH4+, < 0 mg/L; HCO3-, 43.9 454 mg/L; NO3-, 0.09 0.62 mg/L; NO2-, 0.01 -0.09 mg/L; SO42-, 26 206 mg/L; PO43-, 0.12 0.91 mg/L; F-0.17 0.41 mg/L andCl-99.3 1032 mg/L. Total coliform ranged between 34 2046 CFU per 100mL and fecal coliform between 19 930 CFU per 100mL. The Geographical locations of the wells were picked with Garmin eTrex hand-held GPS receiver and their coordinates used to develop a geo - spatial map using Arc GIS version 10.3.Charts of the test results compared with WHO guidelines for domestic water use was presented using MS excel 2010 edition. This revealed that total and faecal coliform were abnormally high above the permissible limit for wells in the study area. Conductivity, turbidity, chloride, TDS and total hardness also showed significant levels of concentrations above WHO limits. This indicate that open dump sites and pit latrines close to wells are the major cause of the abnormally high counts of total and faecal coliform. The significant levels of conductivity, turbidity, chloride, TDS and total hardness above WHO limits can be attributed to uncovered and unkempt wells which receive erosive runoff from upland. These quality indicators render hand-dug wells in the study area unsuitable for direct human consumption according to WHO guidelines for drinking water use. Thus, hand-dug wells within the study area requires immediate treatment before they can be used for drinking purpose.

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